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Background: In the 1940s, child psychologists Kenneth Bancroft Clark & Mamie Phipps Clark conducted an experiment using dolls to gauge children’s attitude about race. They testified in Briggs v. Elliot (1952), one of the cases consolidated in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). The Clarks’ work influenced the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS), which ruled that de jure segregation in public school education was unconstitutional; that separate was not equal, overturning Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Anderson Cooper & the authors of NurtureShock revisit this experiment, with similar results.